Careers in medical ethics include medical ethics consultants, medical ethics professors and medical ethics lawyers. A bachelor's degree is required to be a medical ethics consultant, while advanced degrees or needed to be a medical ethics professor. A medical ethics lawyer must have a law degree and law license.
Ethicists draft institutional policies, consult on individual cases and provide regulatory oversight. Those interested in this field commonly complete advanced degree programs; however, educational requirements vary by discipline.
|Career||Medical Ethics Consultant||Medical Ethics Professor||Medical Ethics Lawyer|
Advanced Degree (recommended)
|Doctorate in Philosophy||Bachelor's Degree
|Projected Job Growth from 2019-2029*||32% for medical and health service managers||21% for postsecondary health specialties instructors||4%|
|Median Salary||$104,280 (2020)* for medical and health service managers||$148,713 (2021)**||$126,930 (2020)*|
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, **Salary.com
A career in medical ethics generally involves advanced degrees in a diversity of fields related to healthcare. Salaries vary widely by position; a few career options are presented below.
Medical Ethics Consultant
Clinical care and research facilities often have an institutional ethics committee (IEC) or an institutional review board (IRB). These groups are staffed with a variety of medical professionals, including doctors, nurses and social workers.
IEC staffers draft internal ethics policies and may consult on individual patient cases. For example, they may advise physicians on care options for a terminally ill patient or consult family members who must make critical decisions on behalf of a patient.
IRB members regulate and consult on clinical research projects involving human subjects. They ensure research proposals take ethical protocols into account and monitor projects to ensure these protocols are maintained. For example, they may oversee treatment of human test subjects or evaluate ethical and safety issues surrounding human stem-cell research.
According to the professor of biomedical ethics at the University of Virginia, healthcare experience provides an advantage for those seeking a career in medical ethics. An educational background in law or philosophy can qualify candidates for applied ethics positions, though requirements vary. All clinical healthcare careers require licensure from a state board.
Most IEC or IRB members have completed at least a bachelor's degree program. Registered nurses must complete at least a diploma program; however, completion of a nursing bachelor's degree program can increase opportunities for career advancement.
Physicians must complete up to eight years of combined undergraduate and medical school, plus another 3-8 years of residency. Medical researchers are generally expected to complete advanced degree programs. Medical schools may have ethics as a concentration or fellowship program.
Career and Salary Information
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicts that registered nurses will see a 7% increase in jobs from 2019-2029, a rate that's faster than average when compared to all occupations during that same decade; the median salary for registered nurses was $75,330 in 2020 (www.bls.gov). The agency estimated that physician jobs will increase 4% from 2019-2029. According to the BLS, the mean salary for a physician can vary by area of practice; surgeons earned a mean salary of $256,650 in 2020, while pediatricians earned a mean salary of $184,570. Medical scientist jobs are expected to increase 6% from 2019-2029, and the median salary for this career was $81,510 in 2020, according to the BLS.
Government agencies and international policy organizations employ experienced professionals from the disciplines of health, law, education and philosophy to draft and regulate ethics policies for healthcare and health-related science. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization are among the national and international bodies with medical ethics or bioethics committees.
Committees are generally staffed with professionals who have completed at least one graduate-level degree program. Common fields of study include public health and law; these degrees may be combined with a Doctor of Medicine.
Medical Ethics Professor
Ethics professionals in academia lead research initiatives on ethics and provide ethics training for students. Many universities offer ethics degree programs at the graduate level. Some universities may have a medical ethics center affiliated with a medical school; others feature medical ethics studies as part of the law, public health or humanities departments.
Faculty positions generally require the completion of a Doctor of Philosophy program. Students interested in an academic career should first complete their education in a specific field, such as philosophy or a life science, rather than pursue ethics exclusively.
Career and Salary Information
The BLS predicts that the number of jobs for postsecondary health specialties teachers will grow 21% from 2019-2029, a rate that's much better than average. In March 2021, Salary.com reported that medical ethics professors who earned salaries in the 25th-75th percentile range took home $119,875-$175,745, with a median figure of $148,713.
Medical Ethics Lawyer
Institutional ethics groups often include legal professionals alongside medical and science experts to consult on cases and create policy. Some law firms specialize in ethics-related health issues. Medical ethics issues with legal ramifications include end-of-life decisions, brain death and informed consent.
All lawyers complete approximately seven years of combined undergraduate and graduate law education. In order to practice, individuals earn a Juris Doctorate and then pass an exam to be admitted into their state's bar association.
Career and Salary Information
The BLS expects that the number of jobs available for lawyers will increase 4% from 2019-2029. The agency also reported that in May 2020, the median annual salary for lawyers was $126,930 .
Medical ethics professionals are highly trained in their field, with a minimum of a bachelor's degree required to be a medical ethics consultant. Additional education is required to be a medical ethics professor or medical ethics lawyer.