General Surgeon: Education Requirements and Career Information

Oct 20, 2021

General surgeons perform operations on patients to treat injuries and illness. The types of surgeries may include repair of broken bones or damaged organs.

Essential Information and Surgeon Requirements

General surgeons must graduate from medical school, complete a general surgery residence, and obtain licensing. Their training requires at least 12 years of postsecondary education. Surgeons diagnose and repair diseases that require surgical intervention. To practice as a general surgeon, one must have a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathy (DO) degree and state licensure which requires completion of a general surgery residency. Most general surgeons are also board certified, which requires passage of standardized examination by the American Board of Surgery (for MD's), or the American Osteopathic Board of Surgery (for DO's).

Required Education Prerequisite college courses (2-4 years),
Medical school (4 years),
General surgery residency (5+ years)
Licensure & Certification Board certification available,
State medical license required
Other Requirements Continuing Medical Education (CME) credit to maintain license and board certification after residency,
DEA registration to prescribe controlled substances
Projected Job Growth (2016-2026) 13% (for all physicians and surgeons)*
Average Salary (2018) $255,110 annually*

Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

How to Become a Surgeon

General Surgeon Schooling

Following completion of high school, the path to becoming a general surgeon starts with earning a bachelor's degree. Though technically not a requirement to get into medical school, most medical students have completed a bachelor's degree. While a student's undergraduate major is not necessarily important, the subjects needed to become a surgeon typically involve science, human anatomy, and pre-med studies. Students must also pass the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) in order to be admitted to a medical school.

Medical school is generally a 4-year program. The Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree program consists of two years of in-class work followed by two years of clinical rotations. During clinical rotations, students are exposed to a number of fields of medicine, including surgery. Surgical rotations provide students the opportunity to engage in surgical procedures. Following completion of a M.D. degree program, graduates interested in a career as a surgeon enter a general surgery residency.

General surgery residency programs typically last five years. These skill-enhancing, training programs are both didactic and clinical in nature. Residents continue with in-class work while sharpening their skills in the various aspects of general surgery. Many general surgery residencies also fulfill requirements for board certification.

Licensure Information

In order to practice, all doctors must be licensed by a state medical board. Licensure requirements can vary by state, but general conditions include completion of medical school and a residency program, and taking and passing licensing exams. The most common exam accepted by states is the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), which is overseen by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME).

Career Information for General Surgeons

Hospitals, physicians' and surgeons' offices, clinics and even government agencies employ general surgeons. Some general surgeons are also self-employed. These licensed professionals repair and treat general internal injuries, such as broken bones, and wounded tissues or organs. In addition to performing general surgical procedures, these physicians also make diagnoses, conduct follow-ups and advise their patients on other recuperative or preventative healthcare measures.

Employment Outlook and Salary Info

Due to the continued growth of the healthcare industry, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted employment of physicians and surgeons to increase by 13% during the 2016-2026 decade. The BLS noted in May 2018 that the mean annual salary of surgeons was $255,110.

Certification Information

Board certification is not a requirement to practice medicine, although some surgeons and physicians do opt to become board certified to enhance professional credibility. The American Board of Surgery oversees board certification for general surgeons. Becoming board certified requires holding an unrestricted state medical license, completing a residency and training program, and passing a series of examinations. The general surgery qualifying examination consists of 300 multiple-choice questions, which is then followed by an oral examination.

General surgeons help people live better lives by performing surgery to treat injuries and illness. They must have a doctor of medicine degree and licensure. Surgeons earned an average annual salary of $255,110 in 2018.

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